Smart City - a city adapted to the expectations of the residents
According to the estimates of analysts, the next decades will lead to unprecedented growth of population living in urban areas. The trend of world urbanization gains more and more momentum – in the next decade, an urban centre the size of Wrocław will be built every month, while agglomerations will absorb 700 million new residents. The main factors driving the trend of migration to the cities, such as:
- economic grounds, i.e. waiting for the availability of attractive jobs by both skilled and unskilled workers;
- social grounds, i.e. expecting better access to public services, better housing conditions, access to healthcare facilities, education and the media,
exist regardless of historical, geographical and cultural differences.
At the same time, the growth of human capital in cities as such is not a guarantee for meeting the expectations of the growing number of residents. Together with the growth of the city, problems related to pollution, logistics, energy management, discrepancies concerning the quality of life of inhabitants and thus crime are also growing. Maintaining a positive economic balance (700 largest cities, inhabited by approx. 20% of the world population, generate more than half of GDP) poses greater challenges for services and municipal authorities in the area of efficient management, not only in the light of crisis, but also concerning the cities’ daily functioning.Dalej
In order to meet these challenges and wanting to systematize the knowledge of the effective management of the city, institutions and research centres in the world are trying to formulate a definition of a "smart city", identifying crucial areas whose proper functioning affects the overall prosperity of the city and its residents. One of these working definitions (the term “working” is used due to the fact that the concept is relatively new) is the one according to which smart city is a city that strives to solve public problems through the use of ICT-based solutions (information and communication technologies) as a result of partnership cooperation of stakeholders, service providers, at the level of municipal authorities. According to this definition, some analysts distinguish six basic components that make up the smart city:
- smart management (understood as transparent exchange of information between residents, city, central units and units of municipal services, police, fire-fighting and ambulance services);
- smart economics (market-drivers such as e-business and e-commerce) that enables the efficient flow of goods, services and knowledge at the level of the city and between cities;
- smart mobility (understood as safe, effective and efficiently linked management systems related to transportation, logistics, public transport, cycling traffic, parking);
- smart management of environment resources (smart meters, energy storage aids, devices assisting in reducing energy consumption, rational management of electrical energy, smart lighting systems, implementation of renewable energy sources, waste management);
- smart education/information for residents (access to training and education via modern information and communication technologies, supporting resources, creativity and human potential, enabling active participation of residents in community life in urban areas);
- smart lifestyle (allowing for improving the quality of life based on ICT – a wider, more diverse range of cultural offer and services, better knowledge of healthcare facilities and residential offer).
Smart city is therefore a very broad concept, covering infrastructural, organizational and social issues.
This whole structure forms a body whose smooth functioning is not possible without the "nervous system", which consists of intelligent devices, networks, processes and services that deliver, collect and consolidate the acquired data into a form which allows their use in decision-making and management.
Achieving the overarching goal, i.e. to balance the economic success of the city and residents’ satisfaction is not possible without a coherent vision of the sustainable development of the city for many years, which thus assumes that at the start, all elements, both infrastructural and organizational, will be built with the awareness of the possibilities of their mutual cooperation – the key to the success of a smart city is in fact the integration and interoperability of systems, services and processes.More
Most activities of local governments in Poland are still focused on the most essential investments in "hard" infrastructure (such as road maintenance). Unfortunately, in such a way it is difficult for us to catch up with efficient and smart urban centres in Scandinavia, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. In the ranking of number of smart cities, we do not score too high. Interestingly, it does not result solely from wealth or size of population in cities, as similar scores (in terms of number of smart cities) are obtained, for instance, by German citiesInvestments undertaken either by central units (modernization of lighting system – SOWA programme) or locally, such as the introduction of video surveillance systems, public Wi-Fi zones, often do not contain the necessary features of modularity and openness to co-operate with other systems of the city. Ad hoc solutions - implementation of different technologies not interacting with each other - result in problems related to maintenance and servicing of devices operating within the systems, and, consequently, in additional costs for the municipal budget.
Meanwhile, skilfully introduced concept of a smart city carries a measurable potential not only in the form of budget relief, but mainly via the improvement of the living conditions of residents, increased sense of security and active participation in the urban life, for example:
- Intelligent Transportation System in Bucharest, according to the research of the Technical University of Bucharest for the period between March 2008 and March 2009, with an increase in road traffic of 5% in that period, resulted in:
- shortening the travel time of private road users by 20%,
- shortening the travel time of privileged public transport by 59%,
- reducing the total CO2 emission by 10%.
Data from Rome, Turin and Oslo show the shortening of travel time of private road users by 15% and shortening the travel time of public transport by 28%.
- Replacing traditional mercury or sodium lighting with LED-technology, you can obtain 60-70% savings in annual electricity consumption for urban lighting (cities of Erkrath or Stutensee in Germany). Additional savings can be achieved by introducing signalling and information boards based on high-quality light-emitting diodes.
- Introducing intelligent transport systems which consist of guidance systems for parking space, as well as urban traffic management systems that are also correlated with modern and safe road lighting, in order to reduce fatalities in road traffic, plus reduce travel time and hence harmful exhaust emission.
- Facilitating access to local public services and municipal services to increase crime detection.
All this affects the assessment of the administration and support of the residents. At the same time, energy savings and improvement in the management of environmental resources influences the assessment of external institutions and tourist attractiveness of the city.More
A broader view
In order to meet the challenges faced by the administration of a modern city, Cisco and its partners offer a complete system architecture Cisco Smart+Connected Community, covering different components of a smart city.
The proposed solution is a modular platform for delivering services and applications that use cloud computing technology, which can be shaped depending on the expected level of control and security of processed data, towards the direction of a private solution, fully embedded in the ICT structure of the city, or a public one, using external solutions.
Components that are part of the architecture include such areas of operation of the city as:
- transport management :
- the central gathering of information on traffic flows, control of traffic lights and flows depend on the current road situation, real-time traffic incidents, improving the capacity of road transport system of the city,
- the management of public transport, enabling monitoring of rolling stock, effective passenger information, building dynamic schedules, allowing more comfortable use of public transport, better resource planning and savings linked to more efficient use of rolling stock,
- parking management system with guidance for road users, enabling efficient guidance for vacant parking space, detection of exceeding the parking time, booking parking places.
- utilities management:
- telemetry mechanisms for water and sewers, allowing prediction of losses and failures, remote meter reading, improving the efficiency of municipal companies and reducing costs associated with losses,
- telemetry mechanisms for waste management, enabling remote monitoring for the capacity of containers, detecting fires and other events, increasing safety and allowing optimal management of waste disposal.
- energy consumption management – mechanisms to monitor and control energy consumption in public buildings (offices, schools), enabling substantial savings.
- public safety::
- video monitoring supported by automatic video analytics, which provides an automated detection of adverse effects (e.g. offenses, vandalism), improving security and enabling rapid response of law enforcement services,
- monitoring of mass events (e.g. sport events) to enable smooth operation of rapid response services,
- supporting crisis management, ensuring effective communication mechanisms (permanent and temporary), both in daily work and organization of crisis management teams.
- intelligent lighting systems – enabling smooth control of lighting leading to energy savings, improvement of comfort and safety of the residents,
- mechanisms for data collection and analysis – enabling the correlation of obtained information and building a knowledge base about the current state of urban infrastructure, as well as enabling to share acquired data with external institutions and organizations, supporting the cooperation with them and ensuring transparency in decision-making processes.
All components share a common communication platform, enabling the efficient collection and exchange of information between them and management via a central console (Dashboard).More
Supporting the realization of smart cities projects is one of the priorities of the starting EU financial perspective. Funding mechanisms for such projects are available, among others, within the adopted Digital Poland Operational Programme and via components of Regional Operational Programmes (ROPs).
In order to obtain the funding, it is required to use complementary solutions based on selected actions within the framework of ROPs and to contribute with own funds, which are, on the one hand, a participation in ROPs, and, on the other hand - investments complementary to ROPs’ tasks and targeted towards areas not covered by them.
Cisco and its partners offer a wide range of financial mechanisms to enable selection of the optimal method of financing for the implementation of our solutions. Depending on the needs, we offer deferred payment mechanisms, credits, and more.
Major suppliers of solutions
- Cisco secure communication and data processing
- IBM data aggregation and processing systems
- Philips efficient lighting systems
- Schneider Electric intelligent energy management
- Swarcointelligent transport systems
Hamburg – a city which is a huge industrial centre, having one of the largest seaports in Europe, must be well communicated. Therefore, the government of Hamburg is implementing a system of traffic management. By analyzing data on the movement of vehicles and vessels, it enables controlling traffic and using parking areas or public transport more comfortably. These solutions result in residents smoothly navigating within the city. The system is complemented with intelligent street lighting, allowing the management of particular lamps and influencing the reduction of energy consumption by up to 70%.
Amsterdam – Amsterdam was the first city in Europe to have WiFi. It is thus not surprising that the city is a pioneer when it comes to implementing “smart city” solutions and “the Internet of things”. Amsterdam has smart parking, street and warning lighting systems, as well as smart electricity grids. By analyzing information on the road traffic, the system dynamically responds to the current situation in the city. These solutions significantly increase the quality of life of residents and their level of safety and contribute to cost reduction.
Barcelona – Barcelona will soon be able to boast about one of the most modern urban transport systems in Europe. The city authorities have introduced a test of smart bus stops equipped with touch screens, WiFi and LCD screens, which display information for residents and tourists. Information collected by the system will allow for reducing the waiting time and analysing the congestion in the transportation system. First smart busses, equipped with wireless network, have also appeared in the capital of Catalonia. Barcelona residents can also benefit from the smart parking and road lighting system. All these solutions reinforce Barcelona’s position on the tourist market and improve the quality of life of residents.